Principles of Systems Thinking

An approach to solving complex problems.

Applying systems thinking to the public sector involves understanding the relationships between stakeholders, policies, and services to address complexities and foster innovation.

Holistic problem-solving

Recognize that issues in one area may have ripple effects across the entire system and address root causes rather than isolated symptoms.


Acknowledge that the behavior of a system may exhibit properties that are not directly attributed to individual components. The whole system can be greater than the sum of its parts.

Long-term adaptability

Embrace adaptability as a core principle, allowing for continuous adjustments to policies and services in response to evolving societal needs and external factors.

Dynamic complexity

Acknowledge that systems are dynamic and evolve over time. Consider how a system may change over time in response to internal and external factors.


Design systems with resilience in mind, anticipating and mitigating potential disruptions.


Understand the underlying causes of complex issues and avoid simplistic solutions that may lead to unintended consequences.


We recognize the intricate interplay of components within the larger system and design not just for immediate success but for the harmonious evolution and resilience of products within their larger, public sector ecosystem.

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